Renowned engineering excellence





Multiple systems for different environments and conditions.

BRONSWERK engineers work to meet each individual client’s needs, whether it’s an HVAC-R system for a tanker, container ship, ferry, tug, yacht or work boat. After a thorough assessment of your objectives and requirements, our engineers design the best HVAC-R solution for your vessel. Air conditioning systems on marine vessels generally can be divided into one of four basic types,determined by how the final cooling and heating are attained within the space. We design your optimum system by using various combinations of these four basic types of A/C systems, depending on your needs.

ALL-AIR SYSTEMS (high or low-pressure)

Your complete HVAC-R solution includes:

  1. Heat load analysis
  2. Conceptual, basic and detail system design
  3. Tailored equipment design and manufacturing to meet special needs
  4. Procurement of components and materials
  5. Installation and/or on-site supervision (when required)
  6. Testing and commissioning of HVAC-R system
  7. After-sales service and spare parts (worldwide)
  8. Warranty

Our team of engineers, detail designers, project managers and site supervisors is at your service. Small- and large-scale marine HVAC-R projects receive equal priority and customer care. Our support continues throughout the entire project – from advice if the ship design changes, to after-launch warranty and service. All of our projects are held up to rigorous quality standards. BRONSWERK relies on its project roadmap and the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) method to ensure that we meet your highest expectations and deliver your system on-time and on-budget. The PMBOK is process-based, giving our client a descriptive overview of all accomplished processes.



All-water systems are those with fan coil and unit ventilator or valance-type room terminals. Air is supplied by an inlet through the bulkhead or by infiltration. Cooling and dehumidification are achieved by circulating chilled water through a finned coil in the unit. Heating isprovided by supplying hot water through the same or a separate coil.

System Advantages (+)

  1. Flexible and readily adaptable to GA requirements.
  2. Provides individual room control.

System Disadvantages (-)

  1. No positive ventilation is provided unless bulkhead openings are used.
  2. No humidification is provided.
  3. Seasonal change over is required.
  4. Maintenance and service work has to be done in the occupied areas.
  5. Extensive water piping.
  6. Limited noise control.



An all-air system provides complete sensible and latent cooling capacity in the cold air supplied by the system. Heating can be accomplished by the same air stream, either in the central system or at a particular zone. All-air systems are for applications in which the only cooling medium used directly within the conditioned space is air. They may be arranged in various ways for transmitting and distributing the air to and within the space, as well as controlling the space temperature and humidity conditions. Central air-handling units can provide heating and cooling to multiple compartments. The outside air is mixed with the return air from the conditioned space.

Individual adjusting of temperature can be done manually by opening / closing the supply air terminal or by local reheating. Outside air is mixed with return air from the compartments, at a ratio of approximately 40 % outside air and 60 % return air.

System Advantages (+)

  1. The central plant is located in unoccupied areas, thereby facilitating operating and maintenance, noise control and choice of suitable equipment.
  2. Seasonal changeover is simple and readily adaptable to climatic control.
  3. Gives a wide choice of zonability, flexibility, and humidity control under all operating conditions.
  4. Allows good design flexibility for optimum air distribution, draft control, and compartment requirements.
  5. Well suited to applications requiring unusual exhaust makeup.
  6. Adapts to winter humidification.
  7. Improved air quality.
  8. Control of noise levels.

System Disadvantages (-)

  1. Requires additional duct clearance.
  2. Air balancing requires great care.
  3. Accessibility to terminals demands close cooperation between naval architects and mechanical and structural engineers.



An air-and-water system is one in which both air and water (cooled or heated in a central plant room) are distributed to room terminals to be reheated if required. The standard is electric re-heating. The air component is comprised of central air conditioning equipment, a duct distribution system, and a room supply air terminal box.

The supply air (called primary air) usually has a constant volume which is determined by:

  • Ventilation requirements
  • Required cooling capacity at maximum cooling load
  • Maximum cooling capacity following changeover to the winter heating cycle, when chilled water is no longer circulated and heating is required

The secondary cooling (or local cooling) is determined by the individual space’s cooling requirements and is provided by Fan Coil Units located in the space.

System Advantages (+)

  1. Individual room temperature control.
  2. Separate sources of heating and cooling for each space available as needed, to satisfy a wide range of load variations.
  3. Dehumidification & filtration are performed in a central plant room remote from conditioned spaces.
  4. Outdoor air supply is positive.
  5. High air quality.

System Disadvantages (-)

  1. Air supply is usually constant, with no provision for shutoff.
  2. Not applicable to space with high exhaust requirement.
  3. Higher energy consumption, due to increased power required by the primary pressure drop in the terminal units.
  4. Controls tend to be more complex than for all-air systems.
  5. A low chilled water temperature is needed to control space humidity adequately.
  6. Seasonal changeover is necessary.



Cooling is accomplished by the direct expansion of a refrigerant in a cooling coil (DX system). The DX system includes a refrigerant condensing unit that can be either a seawater-cooled type, or an air-cooled type. More than one evaporator cooling coil can be connected to a single condensing unit (co-balanced). DX systems are generally confined to the smaller and intermediate tonnage air conditioning applications (less than 50 tons) and are used for all-air systems / air-water systems.

System Advantages (+)

  1. Simplified system.
  2. Localized piping system.
  3. Lower off-coil temperatures.
  4. Compact equipment.
  5. Low weight.

System Disadvantages (-)

  1. Typically preferred one DX Condensing Unit to one AHU or FCU.
  2. Not recommended for multiple users.
  3. Large capacities not permitted for safety reasons (Refrigeration Code).